Who Was Really In Charge Of Wtc Security?, Cerberus?

post Feb 17 2009, 01:44 AM
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WTC1 security desk picture of CERBERUS:

*note: a "cerberus" is a 3-headed beast (usually dog) from greek/roman mythology: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerberus

Cerberus (Greek: Κέρβερος, Kérberos) is the name given to the entity which, in Greek and Roman mythology, is a multi-headed dog which guards the gates of Hades, to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx from ever escaping...

(a modern rendition of a cerberus)

(a classical rendition of a cerberus)

Cerberus was the son of Echidna, a hybrid half-woman, half-serpent and Typhon, a fire-breathing giant whom even the Olympian gods feared. His brother is Orthrus, always depicted as a two-headed hellhound.[6] The common depiction of Cerberus in Greek mythology and art is as having three heads, a mane of live serpents (similar to Medusa's hair) and a dragon's tail. In most works the three-heads each respectively see and represent the past, the present and the time yet to come, while other sources suggest the heads represent birth, youth and old age.[7] Each of Cerberus' heads is said to have an appetite only for live meat and thus allow the spirits of the dead to freely enter the underworld, but allow none to leave.[8] Cerberus was always employed as Hades' loyal watchdog, and guarded the gates that granted access and exit to the underworld (also called Hades).[9]

now back to-

CERBERUS, the company profile:

Cerberus Security Services redefines the role of security -- both corporate and private -- in an intense, sometimes unsettling environment, in which success and safety are increasingly at risk. A small, specialized firm based in New York City, Cerberus delivers security with speed, flexibility and with customized detail. Cerberus creates effective and responsive security protection programs without the bureaucracy, frustrations and layers of hierarchy that often bedevil business with large security firms. Cerberus will never offer a client a prefabricated security program. Our mission is to craft for each client a unique security plan, one that begins by analyzing every aspect of the client's area of concern, assessing risk and creating effective...

cerberus company senior members:;cd=3&gl=us

Cerberus Senior Management
Stephen Hollowell, President
Timothy Ross Gansrow, Vice President and Co-Founder
Peter Winski, Managing Director
Keith Rauscher, Senior Supervisor

The senior management team of Cerberus Security Services combines extensive expertise and experience in local, national, and international law enforcement and corporate security. Our senior managers draw on years of service with the New York Police Department, federal and state law enforcement divisions, New York City Emergency Division, New Scotland Yard as well as senior security positions in well-known New York City institutions and corporations, such as Kroll, Inc. Their network of contacts offers the highest level of strategic partnerships in personal security including drivers specifically trained in executive protection defensive driving, canine handlers, and security systems integration.

Our protection team also consists of skilled professionals with years of experience in counter-terrorism and executive protection, working on behalf of government figures, foreign and domestic business leaders, royalty and world-renowned entertainers.

.: .: Stephen Hollowell, President
Stephen Hollowell, CPP, is the President and Founder of Cerberus Security Services, a New York City-based firm that provides a full range of security services specializing in comprehensive threat assessments for corporations and high-net worth individuals, special events and executive protection. Mr. Hollowell brings more than 25 years of international experience in security management and law enforcement.

Previous to Cerberus, Mr. Hollowell worked at Kroll, Inc.'s Corporate Security Group, where he employed his expertise in a wide range of security services including the development and implementation of complete security programs that involve physical security reviews, executive protection programs, special events, security policies and procedures, crisis and emergency management plans, loss prevention and criminal and civil investigations.

Mr. Hollowell was the Director of Security and Safety at the American Museum of Natural History, where he modernized the security department and established the first integrated access control system. He developed and implemented the Museum's first crisis management plan and established the first operational policies and procedures for the security and safety of employees, priceless artifacts and visitors. Mr. Hollowell coordinated numerous sensitive V.I.P events for international and domestic dignitaries.

Previously, Mr. Hollowell worked at the Brooklyn Academy of Music as the Director of Security, and at Mount Sinai Medical Center as Director of Investigations.

In England Mr. Hollowell worked for the Metropolitan Police, Scotland Yard, where as a Detective Sergeant he handled many varied and sensitive assignments, including organizing and providing security for major public events.

Mr. Hollowell has extensive experience designing and managing security programs like the following:

High Rise Corporate Office Buildings, Executive Residences, Hotels, Schools, Museums, Cultural Institutions, Airports, Train and Bus Stations, Bridges and Tunnels, Industrial Parks, Warehouses and Parking Facilities

Mr. Hollowell graduated from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, where he received his B.S. summa cum laude in Security Management with a minor in Law.

Mr. Stephen Hollowell is a Certified Protection Professional, CPP and an expert in Security Systems Design and Application. He is a certified Fire Safety Director and a NY Security Guard Act Instructor. He is also certified in the Advanced Course on the Reid Technique of Interview and Interrogation.

Mr. Hollowell is a member of the American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) and Association of Threat Assessment Professional (ATAP).

.: .: Timothy Ross Gansrow, Vice President and Co-Founder
Timothy Ross Gansrow, Vice President of Cerberus Security Services, is a founding partner of the company. He develops and implements strategies for the protection of high-net worth individuals and corporate executives; assists in the development and operational oversight of numerous special events for corporations and wealthy private citizens; conducts criminal investigations for Fortune 500 companies; and tenders operational oversight in such areas as threat assessment and site management.

Mr. Gansrow has worked in the private security sector for over 13 years, including six years as a Security Supervisor at Kroll, Inc. under the management of Stephen Hollowell, Senior Director.

Mr. Gansrow is a former Detective First Class in the New York Police Department's Anti-Crime Unit, Manhattan North Narcotics Division, Manhattan North Narcotics Homicide Unit, and Organized Crime Investigation Division.

He was also a member of the NYPD Intelligence Division, Dignitary Protection Unit, Special Operations Group, working cooperatively with the U.S. Secret Service and State Department to provide executive protection for heads of state and dignitaries visiting New York City, including Vice President Dick Cheney; Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon; former Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu; foreign Minister of the State of Qatar, Surya Bahadur Thepa; and the former Joint Chief of Staff, General Thomas Franks.

Mr. Gansrow was promoted to the rank of Sergeant and is currently assigned to the Internal Affairs Bureau.

Mr. Gansrow's commendations and distinctions include:

Medal for Valor
Eight Excellence in Police Duty Awards
Two Meritorious Awards
An Honorable Merit Award
Commendation for Investigation Excellence
Dignitary Protection Certification
Cult/Occult Certification
High Intensity Drug Trafficking Agency Certification
Organized Crime Control Bureau Narcotics Interdiction Training
Counterterrorism Training
CIC Investigators Course

.: .: Peter Winski, Managing Director
Peter Winski, Managing Director of Cerberus Security Services, assists in the management and implementation of executive protection projects and corporate crisis management plans for executive and high-net worth clients; manages the day-to-day operations for numerous special events for dignitaries both domestic and international; and conducts numerous successful short-term and long-term criminal investigations of high-profile clients.

Mr. Winski is a Deputy Inspector with the New York City Police Department and currently the Commanding Officer of the 30th Precinct. In his 18 years with the NYPD, Mr. Winski has worked in a variety of assignments including as the Special Operations Coordinator in the Street Crime Unit, where his duties involved implementing and preserving crime scenes and conducting Police involved shooting investigations.

Mr. Winski has been the Platoon Commander of the 103rd Precinct and the Executive Officer of Midtown South Precinct, when he was a Captain, with responsibilities for all police action within these areas. He then was the Commanding Officer of the First Precinct, which covers all of Lower Manhattan including the Financial District and the World Trade Center, during the attacks of September 11, 2001. He has extensive experience in emergency situations and has learned firsthand what security features have proven reliable. As a Deputy Inspector he is part of the Citywide Incident Management System, which involves all Counter-Terrorism and Emergency response and recovery in New York City.

Mr. Winski has extensive law enforcement experience and training in executive protection and special event coordination.

Mr. Winski's additional training and certification include:

Hostage Negotiation and Response
Counter-Terrorism Prevention/Response/Mitigation/Recovery Training
Search Warrant Application and Execution Training
Hazardous Material Responder Certification
Citywide Incident Management Certification
Police Involved Shootings and Crime Scene Investigations
Integrity and Internal Investigations
Unconventional Threats to Homeland Security
Advanced Technology in Homeland Security
Homeland Security Intelligence

Mr. Winski has a Bachelor's Degree in Forensic Psychology from the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and is currently enrolled in the Master's Degree Program in Homeland Security and Counter Terrorism at the Naval Postgraduate School: Center for Homeland Defense and Security.

.: .: Keith Rauscher, Senior Supervisor
Keith E. Rauscher, Senior Supervisor of Cerberus Security Services, conducts numerous successful short-term and long-term criminal investigations for high-profile clients.

Mr. Rauscher also assists in the implementation of Executive Protection projects and oversight of corporate crisis management plans for executive and high-net worth clients, and assists in the day-to-day operations for numerous special events for dignitaries both domestic and international. Prior to that, Mr. Rauscher operated as a Protection Specialist under the management of Stephen Hollowell, Senior Director, at Kroll Associates Incorporated.

Mr. Rauscher is a former Detective first class with the New York City Police Department. In his 20 years with the NYPD, Mr. Rauscher supervised police officers and detectives and worked in the anti-crime unit dealing with armed robberies.

Mr. Rauscher investigated New York police corruption while attached to the Internal Affairs Bureau.

Mr. Rauscher was also the case officer of long-term and extremely successful investigations involving organized crime members from the Gambino and Luchese families.

Mr. Rauscher was granted US Marshall's status in order to pursue targeted criminals worldwide and worked extensively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Customs, and the Internal Revenue Service.

Mr. Rauscher has extensive law enforcement experience and training in executive protection and special event coordination.

Commendations and Distinctions:

Two Distinguished Duty Medals
Six Excellence In Police Duty Medals
Four Honorable Merit Awards
Commendation for Investigative Excellence
Cult / Occult Certification
High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Certification
NYSPIN Certification
Counter Terrorism Training
Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device Certification
Criminal Investigation Courses
Federal Bureau of Investigation Surveillance Certification
New York City Police Department Photographic Training
New York City Police Department Internal Affairs Bureau Certification


so who was really in charge of security at the WTC's? was Cerberus just the name of some software or system and is that why its name was on that security panel in the pic? or was that a company tasked with building security at the wtc's? if so, who are these guys? and how come no one has ever mentioned them before?

any help in researching more about them would be much appreciated, thanks!

This post has been edited by paranoia: Feb 17 2009, 01:59 AM
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post Feb 25 2009, 09:06 AM
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Maybe these items will help the discussion:

Matter of World Trade Ctr. Bombing Litig.
2004 NYSlipOp 24030
January 20, 2004
Supreme Court, New York County,
Published by New York State Law Reporting Bureau pursuant to Judiciary Law § 431.
As corrected through Friday, July 9, 2004

[*1] In the Matter of World Trade Center Bombing Litigation [1993 bombing]

Supreme Court, New York County, January 20, 2004

Stanley L. Sklar, J.

2. Security at the WTC

The WTC was run by the World Trade Department of the Port Authority, which determined whether to open parts of the WTC to the public, whether public parking should be offered, and what security should be provided for the buildings and the garage. (Plaintiffs' Steering Committee exhibits 2, 3 [Tozzoli deposition at 33, 246-247, 278].) Civilian management personnel had responsibility for the day-to-day administration of security guards assigned to the WTC. The Port Authority Police had a command post on the B-1 level, and were responsible for public safety. (Defendant's exhibit F [Maikish deposition at 105-109].) The civilian security guards were not police officers, did not carry weapons or handcuffs, and reported to the World Trade Department, not to the Port Authority Police. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 4 [Censullo deposition at 47-48]; exhibit 24 [Feliciano deposition at 57-59, 63].) They provided security, were information agents (providing information and directions to the public), monitored access to the complex, reported accidents to the police, and detected intruders. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 15 [Maikish deposition at 113-114]; exhibit 5 [Coppolecchia deposition at 53-54].) The police were responsible for criminal investigations and accidents. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 5 [Coppolecchia deposition at 53].)

B. The Port Authority Establishes a Terrorism Planning Office

In the early 1980's the Port Authority was aware of terrorist activities occurring in other areas of the world, and that the WTC, as a highly symbolic target, was vulnerable to terrorist attack. (Defendant's exhibit P [Caram deposition at 46-47, 58-60].) Terrorist bombings, including car bombs, were becoming more prevalent, not only in the world but in the United States as well. (Id. at 58-60; see also affidavit of Ellen J. Tidd, dated Apr. 10, 2003, ¶¶ 7, 11-19; affidavit of Denis Dalton, dated Apr. 11, 2003, ¶¶ 14-15.) In fact, the Port Authority recognized that, in 1983-1984, two thirds of domestic terrorist incidents occurred in the New York-New Jersey metropolitan region. (Defendant's exhibit Q [Office of Special Planning Report] at 000002 PASD.)

In response, the Port Authority created a Terrorist Planning and Intelligence Section, and assigned Detective Sergeant Peter Caram the tasks of identifying terrorist groups and Port Authority targets, and to assess the vulnerability of Port Authority facilities to terrorist attack. (Affidavit of Peter Caram, dated Apr. 9, 2003, ¶¶ 10-12; defendant's exhibit P [Caram deposition at 30-31, 46-47, 50, 58-60].) The Terrorist Planning Section submitted its report in 1984, in which it warned that the threat of domestic terrorism was rising, that the WTC was vulnerable to terrorist attack, and that the underground public parking garage was highly vulnerable, easily accessible, and, if attacked, could critically affect the WTC's infrastructure. (Caram affidavit ¶ 12; defendant's exhibit P [Caram deposition at 46-47, 50]; plaintiffs' exhibit 21 [Caram deposition at 53-56].)

In another report, entitled "Terrorist Assessment—World Trade Center—1984," prepared at the request of the Port Authority Superintendent of Police, the Port Authority was warned that, more than at any time in its history, the WTC should be considered a prime target for domestic and international terrorists. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 34 at 2.) The report also specifically warned that the parking lots "are accessible to the public and are highly susceptible to car bombings." (Id. at 11.)

Later that year, again in 1984, the Port Authority created the Office of Special Planning (OSP) to address and evaluate the vulnerabilities of Port Authority facilities to terrorist acts, and to formulate recommendations to prevent and minimize the risks of such acts. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 52; defendant's exhibit Q [OSP Report] at 000002 PASD.) Port Authority Executive Director Peter [*4]Goldmark, in a memorandum to Vic Strom, Director of the Port Authority's Public Safety Department, Edward O'Sullivan, Director of OSP, and Hank DeGeneste, the Assistant Superintendent of Port Authority Police, noted the particular concern the authorities at Scotland Yard expressed to Port Authority officials in August 1984, about the vulnerability of the WTC parking garage to terrorist attack. He stated that those at Scotland Yard "are appalled to hear we had transient parking directly underneath the towers." (Plaintiffs' exhibit 55; see also Caram affidavit ¶ 13.)

The OSP staff included Port Authority civilian or police personnel with experience in terrorism, operational security, tactical technology, bomb investigation, operations, and military operations. (Plaintiffs' exhibits 12, 13 [O'Sullivan deposition at 150-151, 176, 464-465].) OSP's Director, Mr. O'Sullivan, was experienced in terrorism and counter-terrorism from his 10-year career in the Navy and Marine Corps. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 12 [O'Sullivan deposition at 7-49].) OSP's mission was "to study and prepare measures which would make Port Authority facilities less vulnerable to terrorist attack, to improve the organization's prevention and defensive capabilities, to establish liaison with foreign and domestic units engaged in counter-terrorism activities and to develop an awareness among staff of the potential terrorist threat and the need for vigilance and preparedness." (Defendant's exhibit Q [OSP Report] at 000002 PASD.) OSP consulted with the FBI, the CIA, the National Security Agency, United States Secret Service, United States Department of Transportation, Department of State, Department of Defense, and security officials from the governments of France, England, Italy, Switzerland and Israel, as well as private consultants. (Defendant's exhibit G [NY Senate Hearings, Mar. 22, 1993] at 324-326; exhibit K [O'Sullivan deposition at 99-100].) The scope of OSP's activities included reviewing and addressing vulnerabilities, identifying alternatives and solutions, presenting recommendations to the facility's management, and obtaining responses from each facility that would be coordinated with the Director of Public Safety.

f>A. OSP's Study of the WTC

The OSP spent four to six months studying the WTC, including its building design through examination of photographs, blueprints, diagrams, and plans. OSP brought in experts, such as those who built the WTC, and those who operated it, as well as experts familiar with sabotage and explosives, and had them walk through to assess what was vulnerable, and identify critical areas of the WTC that, if damaged, could impair the building's ability to function or require it to shut down. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 13 [O'Sullivan deposition at 300-301].) The OSP visited other large commercial buildings in the City, reviewing their security and the way they handled and responded to bomb threats. (Id. at 323.)

To formulate its recommendations, OSP conducted a "target analysis" in which it analyzed Port Authority targets in terms of "criticality, accessibility, vulnerability, recuperability and extended effect that destruction of the specific target" would have. (Defendant's exhibit Q [OSP Report] at 000003 PASD.) Criticality is the measure of the impact on the normal flow of events by the target's destruction. Accessibility refers to the terrorist's ability to reach and attack a vincible point. Vulnerability is the extent to which the target would be damaged. Recuperability is the speed at which normal operation would resume after an attack. Finally, OSP evaluated the extended effect of destruction of the target. (Id.)


f>A. The SAIC Report

The Port Authority sought a second opinion about the OSP's recommendations, and hired an outside consultant, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), to conduct a general security review of the WTC. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 14 [Strom deposition at 70-71].) SAIC was given a copy of the OSP Report as well as Tozzoli's letter to Berger rejecting OSP's recommendations about the subgrade level. (Defendant's exhibit V at 000051 PASD [SAIC Report].) SAIC's Report rated the attractiveness of the WTC's public areas to terrorist attack as "very high." (Id. at 000030 PASD.) It identified the vehicle ramps as vulnerable areas. (Id. at 000031 PASD.) It specifically noted that vehicle access for security purposes is uncontrolled. (Id.) The report found that a "well-placed vehicle bomb in each of these locations [the vehicle ramps] would likely damage at least half of the support services (fresh water, steam, cooling water, electrical and telephone) to the WTC users." (Id. at 000032 PASD.) The SAIC Report found that an adversary would have "little difficulty" in procuring explosives which are "readily available" in the quantities envisioned in the report. (Id. at 000047 PASD.) Like the OSP Report, the SAIC Report described an attack scenario, remarkably like the one which occurred, in which a small delivery truck with explosives could be positioned on a ramp to the complex, and detonated following a short time delay for the driver's escape. (Id.) It recommended certain possible upgrades, including installing blast deflectors around critical support service components (water, electrical, phone), eliminating parking in subgrades, conducting vehicle searches at truck entrances, conducting random searches of all vehicles, and developing redundant support service capabilities. (Id. at 000033 PASD.) These upgrades, however, had been deemed "very costly either in terms of operational impact, public acceptance, or monetary cost," though SAIC admitted that it had not provided any cost analysis to the Port Authority (plaintiffs' exhibit 23 [Veatch deposition at 200-202]), and that the costs were not further analyzed. (Id. at 000034-000035 PASD.) In SAIC's presentation to the Port Authority's Executive Director in October 1986, SAIC featured "barriers to deter car bomb attempts" at a cost of $83,000, as an upgrade "for immediate implementation" to counter a terrorist attack, with a risk reduction figure of 40%. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 30, at 000162 PASD.) The presentation also included a comparison of OSP's recommendations about eliminating parking, or instituting more stringent controls and monitoring, and SAIC's recommendation that these actions were "considered but not recommended" based on discussions with the Port Authority. (Id. at 000163 PASD; defendant's exhibit K [O'Sullivan deposition at 422-425].)

f>A. The Burns and Roe Securacom Report

In 1991, because of the Gulf War and the increased risk of terrorism to United States targets (see Caram affidavit ¶ 30), the Port Authority commissioned another security consulting firm, Burns and Roe Securacom, to prepare reports. Securacom was told by the Port Authority that the WTC was a terrorist target, and the report would help it plan its capital expenditures to maintain its competitive status with nearby buildings that offered more advanced security features. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 39.) Securacom's draft report recognized that in the "aftermath of MidEast events," there would be a significant increase in "international activities." (Defendant's exhibit X at 000055 PASD.) It included the subgrade utilities and the parking garage [*8]as areas of vulnerability. (Defendent's exhibit X at 000058, 000064 PASD.) Its final report recommended that the WTC adopt a master plan approach to the development of security systems. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 27.)

On January 23, 1993, one month before the bombing, the Port Authority received an intelligence report from the FBI that there was a threat from the MidEast to blow up a major office building in New York. (Plaintiffs' exhibit 15 [Maikish deposition at 211-220]; Caram affidavit ¶ 31; affidavit of Joseph Martella, dated Nov. 15, 2002, ¶ 26.) Some heightened security measures were implemented over that weekend (Jan. 23 was a Friday) as a result, including some increased patrols around the perimeter, which patrols also drove through the underground areas, but these were scaled back after the weekend was over. (Martella affidavit ¶ 26; plaintiffs' exhibit 15 [Maikish deposition at 215-219].)

Stratesec GSA Products and Services [Sorry, don't know a cite for this, or a date]

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (World Trade Center) – New York, New York
STRATESEC performed security system consulting and engineering services for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey for the World Trade Center in New York. The task included a feasibility study/design to provide a card access control system for its office buildings with 40,000 occupants, a traffic pattern of 7,000 to 8,000 people per hour, 10,000 lock sets and 50,000 keys. Traditional management of these transactions, using paper logs and forms, was time-consuming, costly and unwieldy from an operational and administrative perspective. Obtaining useful management data from the system required an unnecessary effort.
Vulnerability studies were conducted to make the entire office complex more secure without interrupting the normal work patterns at various office facilities. STRATESEC analyzed existing polices and procedures of the operation. A comprehensive data flow model was developed to illustrate the new system design. Using this model as a functional blueprint to identify the high volume and repetitive daily transactions, STRATESEC developed a custom solution by blending off-the-shelf technology with our knowledge base. This process included elements of inventory tracking and troll, materials management, asset management and rule-based operations.
The system features:
• Non-proprietary hardware and software configuration based on IBM compatible hardware and supported by a readily available local area network with dual file servers.
• A design that supports either copper or fiber optic networks
• Support of variety of bar code readers, including hardwired, portable memory devices and radio frequency units
• Standard database format that is accessible for a variety of reporting purposes, enabling the exchange of data with other management systems
• Incorporation of rules and procedures in the system operation to guide the actions of system operators and serve as a filter for the generation of management reports

World Trade Center
Jul 1, 1997 12:00 PM

"After the [93] bombing, we had the top security consultants in the nation, Kroll Associates, do a complete security analysis for us, and we followed their recommendations," says Douglas G. Karpiloff, program manager, security systems for the WTC. A 26-year veteran of the Port Authority, Karpiloff, a Certified Protection Professional, was general manager of tenant services after the bomb went off. He is responsible for the overall facility management of the $50 million security improvement program: $15 million in completed interim improvements and $35 million for permanent improvements, from the 250 multi-ton perimeter planters that prevent vehicles from crashing into the buildings, to the network of fiber optics and copper that will connect the redundant PCs and their multi-task, multi-user operating system to the lobby, parking and perimeter access control systems, alarms, intercom and CCTV systems.

Karpiloff is also under contract to the Federal Protective Service and has completed an overall threat assessment and security master plan for the Ronald Reagan Center, the largest building complex in Washington, D.C., after the Pentagon. He has developed restrictive parking policies for other sensitive government buildings in Washington, and he helped major building owners in Denver upgrade their security in preparation for the Oklahoma City bombing trial.

He is a man with a mission who speaks with pride of the innovations and subtleties of the WTC's security system.

"We've developed a real team approach to security here," he explains. "Our outstanding engineering department, with Fred Ng and Paul Salvatore, oversees final design and field construction with support from their consultant, Analytical Systems Engineering Corp. Our information systems department, with Vic Guarnera, works on the software systems side of the house. My second-in-command, George Tabeek, and I concentrate on delivering a working system that balances security and tenant needs. Hermon Banks focuses on day-to-day operations, supported by Mike Hurley, manager of fire prevention, life safety and emergency services."

Fire prevention and life safety Each of the four buildings the Port Authority oversees has a stand-alone Class E Pyrotronics fire safety system with its own PC-based file server and operating system. The system controls the complex's smoke detectors, which, upon sensing smoke, emit a small electronic signal that is sent to a local control device, or alarm, which transmits a coded signal to the computer that tells fire officials where to respond. The signals are sent to on- and off-site alarm monitoring stations.

Hurley, a 17-year veteran of the Port Authority, is responsible for all aspects of fire prevention, life safety, emergency preparedness, fire command, code enforcement, training and fire department liaison.

"The fire system is designed to provide us with an alarm from the individual smoke detectors that automatically transmit to the fire command stations staffed by deputy fire safety directors," says Hurley. "They then notify emergency response personnel in the building, as well as the New York City Fire Department. Each smoke detector and sprinkler head is assigned an 'address' so we know exactly where the alarm originates from. There are satellite fire command stations in each of the buildings."

According to Hurley, the Port Authority and WTC are unique because they have their own police force and emergency response personnel, who serve as an in-house fire brigade. The fire brigade has pre-positioned crash carts with Scott air packs and fire fighting equipment so they can begin fire suppression activities even before the fire department arrives.

The fire system includes a PC, associated software, a board that identifies manual pull stations for each floor and a public address system. The alarms, smoke detectors, sprinklers and P/A systems are all integrated, and each of the four buildings has a totally independent system.

The parking access control system The parking access control system at the WTC was manufactured and installed by Ensec Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. The Enworks EN2000 system has a redundant host configuration and supports full function work stations. It is designed to integrate vehicle and driver access control, alarm monitoring and the parking security intercom.

HID proximity card readers and Amtech Smart Pass Readers read drivers' proximity cards and Auto Vehicle Identification (AVI) tags on car windshields. The system is meant to be "failsafe," ensuring that both the driver and the vehicle together are authorized to gain entry to the parking garage, a feature about which Karpiloff is particularly excited.

Also included in the system is a series of Delta Scientific Corp. anti-ram hydraulic barriers. When the system allows entry, the gate arm goes up, and the anti-ram devices go down below the surface. If a vehicle is denied access, the anti-ram barriers go up, and the gate arm does not allow entry.

Separate remote processors for alarms are integrated with the access control system and cause alarms to go off if a security breach is picked up.

"The remote processors support all the information necessary to control the vehicle and the driver, to handle any duress features we have installed, along with some 25 exceptions. They can handle more than 2,500 cardholders," explains Vic Guarnera, project manager for the information services department (ISD).

"In addition, all the alarms are sent back to a workstation, which is attached to the main file server. The person at the workstation responds to and analyzes the alarms, determines appropriate action, and may communicate with the person at the access or alarm point."

There are manned security booths at the entrance/exit points as well. "We have six ramps at which entry and exit can be reversed," says Guarnera, "and guards at those ramps provide extra security for the sub-grade parking area. Any alarm that sounds is displayed on the ramp monitor at the guard's booth as well as on a display event monitor in the parking security office where the clerk enrolls new parkers and vehicles or changes access requirements."

Remote processors for access control and alarms at the parking garages, and workstations at the guard booths, parking office, visitor centers and security command center and other areas, are connected to a main, redundant file server.

Guarnera says the Port Authority's ultimate objective for integration of the security system is to have the lobby and vehicle access control systems integrated together. That will first be accomplished by an interface between the parking and turnstile systems, and at a later date, they will be fully integrated.

"We are using an off-the-shelf environment as much as possible for the permanent operating system," he says. "It must be robust enough to support a system of this size with more than 100 turnstiles, 250 controlled and monitored doors and hundreds of CCTV cameras. It must be able to handle a database that reflects the 45,000 tenant/employee volume we have plus 5,000 to 6,000 visitors per day."

The system integration will allow the two systems to share information on a full-time, real-time basis by way of a channel or dedicated communications linkage. Alarms from the parking system will be integrated with alarms from the turnstile access control system, and one proximity card will be used for both parking and turnstile access control.

The CCTV system Construction is well under way on the installation of an expanded, upgraded CCTV system of covert and overt pan/tilt/zoom, alarm-point cameras. The camera system's American Dynamics matrix switchers will be able to function alone and will also be integrated with the PC computer system.

"We're putting in an upgraded, high-resolution, color CCTV system," says Karpiloff. "The parking entrances and exits and the visitor center areas are already under continuous CCTV monitoring, both covert and overt.

"We believe the expanded system will represent the first time a commercial building in the United States will have a detection system to pick up stopped vehicles at its perimeter. If a vehicle is parked and not moving, we will detect the lack of movement, which will activate the CCTV camera to point to exactly where the vehicle has been detected and record and transmit the information to command stations that can instantly dispatch police."

Karpiloff further explains that, while most CCTV systems are driven by the fact that something is taking place, i.e., a "positive" event, it was more difficult to locate hardware and software that would encompass "negative" events such as stationary vehicles. The video transmissions processed by the program will be wired directly into the multiplex switchers.

Apart from that unique feature of picking up "non-events" in the parking areas, the system generally will be action-activated.

"The camera may be in place but may not record unless something happens, such as a car driving through an area or a person walking past the camera, an event. All the perimeter security is set up like that," notes Hermon Banks. "We have found that guards will pay attention to the CCTV monitors far more effectively with this type of system than if they are simply on all the time."

Cameras, he says, are placed in critical locations within the complex, such as machine rooms, computer areas, visitor areas and other sensitive locations.

"High-powered, 400-line SVHS video recorders support the CCTV system," Karpiloff adds. "If someone tries to force a door or a gate, a video buffering feature, which stores images for a certain period of time, will have recorded the person even before he or she tries to force entry."

Visitor center, lobby and tenant access control Banks manages the complex's security programs, which include a contract guard force of more than 300 people. He has held his position for nearly three years, and was chosen after a nationwide search. A veteran of more than 21 years with the New York City Police Department, Banks went on to the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp.'s security division. As its assistant inspector general, he trained its police force, chaired its safety committee and managed life safety, among other responsibilities. Banks believes his experience with both security and life safety was a strong factor in his being chosen for the WTC job. The lobby access control system is not yet completely automated, but Banks points out that visitors must approach one of the visitor's desks in each of the four buildings, show their identification, and explain where they're from and who they're visiting. The present system records their destination, the date and time arrived, and archives the information for a year.

"I get a printout monthly of every visitor by tower, tenant and category - announced, unannounced and courier," says Banks. "I can recall the information at any time. In fact, I just had a request for information on a visitor from last spring, and someone is searching the database as we speak."

>From a PC in his office, Banks monitors the visitor's desks for managerial and security information such as how long it takes the operators to process visitors. He also examines reports generated by the database.

Tenants, employees, long-term visitors and contractors are using color-coded ID cards until the lobby access control system is fully automated.

Long-term visitors are issued a Polaroid ID3000 system card that is examined by guards upon entry and, when held under special lighting, reveals if there has been tampering.

"All tenant contact names are in a central database and we have issued photo IDs to tenants, employees, long-term visitors and contractors," says Karpiloff.

The lobby access control system will include Perey turnstiles. New, Motorola Indala proximity cards will be issued, which will be read by Motorola Indala readers when the holder places them just above the turnstiles. Visitors will be issued plastic photo ID cards with magnetic stripes that they will swipe through readers.

The contractors for the permanent security system are E.J. Electric and Electronic Systems Associates, both of New York. Securacom, Woodcliff Lakes, N.J., is responsible for system integration.

Also, ASSA of Brooklyn, N.Y., is installing a new key system. The UL437-approved, high-security cylinders and keys contain a proprietary keyway. Each cylinder and key has a bar code imbedded in it. A Qualisoft software control system for issuance of the keys includes remote, hand-held and fixed-location scanners that scan employee ID cards and then scan the key to make sure the key and the person match. All key rings are also weighed before daily distribution to make sure they have not been tampered with.

"We are re-keying all tenant premises in the complex, and all electrical, mechanical, structural and base building systems," says Karpiloff. "Bob Schutz, our chief locksmith, has the unenviable task of leading his men in the massive job of installing 8,000 new cylinders and issuing more than 75,000 new keys." Since the bombing, little has stayed the same at the World Trade Center. Before that devastating day, it was an open complex, closed only on weekends. Today, it is a closed complex, since eyes have been opened to the importance of access control.

© 2005, PRIMEDIA Business Magazines & Media Inc.
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